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Approved Chemicals Water Treatment Chemicals

The following table is taken from the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, Chapter 8 Drinking Water treatment Chemicals

These chemicals have been approved for use in public water supplies.  Coagulation and flocculation are related to removing particulate matter from the water which causes turbidity.  The addition of a coagulant enables the fine particulate matter to join together to form larger particles.  Flocculation involves stirring the water gently after adding the coagulant to cause the particles to stick together to form larger particles which can be removed from the water.

Treatment chemicalFormulaOriginally approvedUses
Aluminium chlorohydrates AlCl(OH)5 2005 Coagulation
Aluminium sulfate (alum) Al2(SO4)3 1983 Coagulation
Ammonia NH3 aq 1983 Generation of chloramines for disinfection
Ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 1983 Generation of chloramines for disinfection
Calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) Ca(OH)2 1983 pH correction,
Softening,
Corrosion control
Calcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2 1983 Disinfection / oxidation
Calcium oxide (quick lime) CaO 1983 Coagulation aid,
pH correction,
Softening,
Corrosion control
Carbon, powdered activated/granulated activated (PAC/GAC) C 1983 Adsorption
Chlorine Cl2 1983 Disinfection / oxidation
Chlorine dioxide ClO2 2005 Disinfection / oxidation
Copper sulfate CuSO4 1983 Algicide
Ferric chloride FeCl3 1983 Coagulation
Ferric sulfates Fe2(SO4)3 1983 Coagulation
Hydrochloric acid HCl 2005 pH correction
Hydrofluorosilicic acid
(fluorosilicic acid)
H2SiF6 1983 Fluoridation
Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 1983 Disinfection, Oxidation
Hydroxylated ferric sulfate 2005 Coagulation
Ozone O3 2005 Disinfection / oxidation
Polyacrylamides (C3H5NO)n 1977 Coagulation aid,
Flocculation aid,
Filter aid
Polyaluminium chlorides Aln(OH)mCL(3n-m) 1979 Coagulation
Poly aluminium silica sulfates Na12(AlO2) (SiO2)12.xH2O 2005 Coagulation
Polydiallyldimethylammonium chlorides (polyDADMACs) 1982 Coagulation and coagulation aid
Potassium permanganate KMnO4 1983 Disinfection / oxidation
Sodium aluminates NaAlO2 1983 Coagulation
Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 1983 pH correction,
Softening,
Corrosion control
Sodium carbonate (soda ash) Na2CO3 1983 pH correction,
Softening,
Corrosion control
Sodium fluoride NaF 1983 Fluoridation
Sodium fluorosilicate Na2SiF6 1983 Fluoridation
Sodium hexametaphosphate (NaPO3)x 1983 Corrosion control
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) NaOH 1983 pH correction,
Softening,
Corrosion control
Sodium hypochlorite NaClO 1983 Disinfection / oxidation
Sodium silicate Na2SiO3 1983 Coagulation aid,
Flocculation aid,
pH correction,
Corrosion control
Sodium tripolyphosphate Na5P3O10 2005 Corrosion control,
Softening
Sulfuric acid H2SO4 1983 pH correction
Zinc orthophosphate Zn3(PO4)2 1987 Corrosion control
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