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Seagull Water Purifier Test Results


The General Ecology, Inc. water purification systems have been in use for over 30 years and have been tested by safety authorities, laboratories and, most importantly, users. The results of a number of tests are available:

Water Purification Without Chemicals

The Wilderness and Environmental Medicine Journal published the article "Microbiological water purification without the use of chemical disinfection" by Charles P. Gerba, PhD; Jaime E. Naranjo, BS from the Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. in Vol 11, No. 1, pp. 12-16 (2000). 

In summary:

Objectives - Point-of-use (POU) water treatment systems are self-contained units that can be used by recreational enthusiasts who normally obtain drinking water from untreated sources (ie, rivers, lakes, etc). Microbiological water purifier units are capable of removing all waterborne pathogens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new technology (Structured Matrix) capable of micro-biologically purifying the water without the use of chemical disinfectants or an external power requirement.

Methods - Each of 3 identical portable water filtration units were evaluated for their ability to remove Klebsiella lerrigena, poliovirus type 1, rotavirus SA-11, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Units were operated according to the manufacturer's instructions to process 378 L of water. Each unit was challenged with test organisms after 0, 94, 190, 227, 284, 340, and 378 L had passed through it. For the 227-L and 284-L challenges, a "worst-case" water quality (4°C, pH 9, and turbidity 30 NTU) was used thai contained 1500 mg/L dissolved solids and 10 mg/L humid acid. At 340-L and 378-L challenges, worst-case water quality was adjusted to pH 5.0. Units were tested after stagnation for 48 hours following passage of 190, 340, and 378 L of water.

Results - The geometric average removal exceeded 99.9999% for bacteria, 99.99% for viruses, and 99.9% for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

Conclusion - These units comply with the criteria guidelines for microbial removal under the United States Environmental Protection Agency's "Guide Standard and Protocol for Testing Microbiological Water Purifiers."

The full article is a PDF file and is 2.9MB in size.

The General Ecology®, Inc Seagull® IV X-1 water purifier has been submitted to the Australian Water Quality Centre (AWQC) for testing.

SEAGULL® IV Pathogen Removal Test Results

The table below summarises the AWQC test results for the Seagull IV water purifier for the removal of pathogens. 

Count Before Count After Purification 

Coliforms77,000 / 100 ml0 / 100 ml

E. Coli
6,500 / 100 ml
0 / 100 ml

What this shows is that of a water sample with 77,000 colifirms and 6,500 E.Coli per 100 mls of water, none were in the purified water.

The original report is available here as a PDF file (size  674kB).


SEAGULL® IV Dissolved Copper Test Results 

The table below summarises the AWQC test results for the Seagull IV water purifier for the removal of dissolved copper.

Before After Purification 

Copper - Total TIC-003 W09-023
0.0178 mg/L0.0010 mg/L

Before purification the water contained 0.0178 mg (thousandths of a gram) of dissolved copper per litre of water. After purification there was 0.0010 mg per litre - i.e., there was 17.8 times more copper in the unpurified water.


The overall product safety and effectiveness has been verified by the following bodies:

Australian Water Board Sydney,Australia

Department of Public Health London,United Kingdom

Food & Hygiene Association Tokyo,Japan

Hungarian Health Ministry Budapest,Hungary

Institut Pasteur Paris,France

Italian Ministry of Health Rome,Italy

National Defense Headquarters Ottawa,Canada

Tokyo Food Sanitation Association Tokyo,Japan

TÜV German Technical Institute,Germany

Analytical Consulting Service, Inc. Kensington,MD USA

Betz, Converse, Murdoch, Inc. Plymouth Meeting,PA USA

Colorado State University Fort Collins,CO USA

Field Epidemiology Survey Team Miami,FL USA

Food Quality Lab/Pacific Pure Water, Inc. Honolulu,HI USA

Food Research Institute Madison,WI USA

General Ecology Water Research Lab Exton,PA USA

Marine Testing Institute Mamaroneck,NY USA

Marist College Research Institute Poughkeepsie,NY USA

National Testing Laboratories, Inc. Cleveland,OH USA

Rockaway Township Health Department Rockaway,NJ USA

Roy Weston Laboratories West Chester,PA USA

Spectrum Labs Fort Lauderdale,FL USA

State of Massachusetts,MA USA

State of Wisconsin Madison,WI USA

Suffolk County NY Health Department Hauppauge,NY USA

Tighe & Bond Easthampton,MA USA

United States Army Biomedical R&D Lab Fort Detrick, Frederick,MD USA

United States Testing Company, Inc. Tulsa Division,OK USA

Villanova University Villanova,PA USA

 See also the X1, X2 and X6 Performance Data Sheet for more information.

The following table compares the contaminant removal capabilities for different types of water filtration and water purification systems.

? = Comparisons are from general information. Performance varies widely within each category.
+ = Usually not effective against organic contaminants ordinarily found in drinking water.
Check manufacturer's claims and test results for specific information.

The Structured Matrix technology as used in the Seagull IV and First Need products effectively removes all contaminants.

For more information, please refer to the Seagull X1, X2 and X6 Product Data Sheet (PDF file 109kB).

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